0021 The Genesis stories of Adam and Eve point to a real recent, prehistoric transition.
The first singularity (B1) initiates cycles of formation, deformation and reformation (or annihilation) (B2).
0022 The contributors to the book, Evolution and the Fall, edited by William T. Cavanaugh and James K. A. Smith (2017, Eerdmans: Grand Rapids, MI, ISBN: 9780802873798), are not aware of the masterworks, The Human Niche, An Archaeology of the Fall and How To Define the Word “Religion”.
As such, they try to adapt traditional Christian theology to an insufficient scientific paradigm.
0023 As noted in Comments on Jacques Maritain’s Book (1935) Natural Philosophy, modern science does not permit metaphysics. Consequently, human evolution must be accounted for by material and instrumental causations, whether in natural history (adaptation) or genetics (phenotype). These are not sufficient, because the human niche is the potential of triadic relations. Triadic relations are real, yet immaterial. They entangle the material, but cannot be explained by it.
0024 Also, the modern paradigm for human evolution does not envision the fact that our current Lebenswelt is not the same as the Lebenswelt that we evolved in. The transition from hand-speech talk to speech-alone talk leaves only one type of archaeological trace, the appearance of trends towards unconstrained social complexity. Why? A change of the semiotic qualities of talk is not a material cause, it is an immaterial cause. Speech-alone talk potentiates unconstrained social complexity.
0025 Finally, some scholars, such as Rene Girard, capture essential features of our current Lebenswelt, and so are ignored by modern gatekeepers. The writers of the past few centuries are often not aware of the materialistic Zeitgeist in which they operate. They wear blinders. They do not see the object that brings all into relation. After all, there is no material or instrumental power greater than sovereign power. Is there?
0026 The three masterworks mentioned above offer novel scientific paradigms that (1) are consistent with current empirical knowledge and (2) transcend the proscription of metaphysics, by considering semiotics to be real. Semiotics entangles the material, but the material cannot explain triadic relations.
0027 The three masterworks offer a new, truly postmodern answer to the questions: Where do we humans come from? What went wrong? What is the cure?
Good places to start include Comments on Daniel Houck’s Book (2020) Aquinas, Original Sin and The Challenge of Evolution, as well as Comments on Five Views in the Book (2020) Original Sin and the Fall.
0013 What does the strange, historic reversal of the term, “religion” imply?
0014 The term is formed, deformed, and now, reformed.
0015 At first, the term is validated by the presence of Christian factions, vying for sovereign power.
Then, the term is exploited by “not religious” individuals, institutions and mass movements. By identifying as “not religious”, theoreticians, organizations and broadcasters find that they can attain sovereign power in order to implement their own organizational objectives. After all, they technically fulfill the Enlightenment mandate that sovereign states should not be in the business of establishing “religions” (Christian factions).
As a bonus, their competitors, Christian factions, cannot compete.
0016 Exploitation deforms the word “religion”, because “not religious” individuals, institutions and movements operate in precisely the same way as Christian factions during and after the Reformation, only with better technology.
0017 The masterwork, How To Define the Word “Religion”, serves as a corrective to this deformation. The current use of the word, “not religious”, is radically deceptive (B2), accounting for the application of the word, “secretive”, as an adjective, to secular individuals, societies and even, mass movements.
Do they know what they are doing?
Most “not religious” participants in mass movements think that their opponents are “religious”. They are. Yet, these same participants cannot recognize that their own stance is deeply religious, as defined by the masterwork. The “not religious” are religious, too. They revel in their own righteousness.
Hence, blatant hypocrisy defines our current times.
0018 In the ancient world, this type of impasse seizes a city or a region and brings it into memetic crisis (see Rene Girard in this regard). The Bible describes the historical arc of Israel in roughly these terms. The question revolves around the nature of God’s covenant with Israel. God’s covenant is formed, deformed then reformed.
Plus, the path is not smooth. God is at work throughout the Bible. So are we.
0019 For two thousand years, Christians contemplate how Adam’s rebellion influences us (B2). The doctrine of Original Sin characterizes a foundational feature of our current Lebenswelt. We are fallen, then we figure out a truth, then we exploit that truth with a deceptive turn, and we fall again. Sometimes, with God’s assistance, we figure out our mistake and reform.
Concupiscence is more than our desire to bathe our own corporeal dispositions with the waters of righteousness. It is also our desire to inflame our spiritual dispositions with the fire of righteousness. The Reformation term, “total depravity”, captures the way that we claim to define what righteousness is, rather than God.
0020 Isn’t that what Eve does, just before she plucks the fruit of the Tree of the Knowledge of Good and Evil?
0007 Ours is a world where we project meanings, presences and messages into our spoken words, then construct artifacts to validate them (B2). The artifact validates our projection, even in the face of unintended consequences. One result is that spoken words, which are at first not deceptive, become deceptive, then wreak havoc until they are reformed.
Does that sound vaguely Biblical?
0008 An example is offered in the masterwork, How to Define the Word “Religion”.
0009 During and after the Reformation, the word, “religion”, labels Christian factions, vying for sovereign power in order to implement their organizational objectives. The factions stand as artifacts that validate the term. The terminology has consequences. Enlightenment constitutions, especially the American, explicitly forbid the federal government from establishing a religion.
0010 The problem?
During the Enlightenment of the 18th century, and during the subsequent two centuries, new social noumena appear, claiming to be “not religious”. The word, “secular”, is coined in the mid-1800s as a label.
What does it mean to identify oneself or one’s institution as “not religious”?
Well, it must mean that the entity does not belong to a Christian faction.
0011 The problem?
These “not religious” individuals (thinkers, leaders and supporters), societies (institutions) and movements (widespread affiliations) behave precisely in the same way that Christian factions do after the Reformation. They engage in social construction (meaning). They seek sovereign power in order to implement their organizational objectives (presence). Their righteousness contains inherent contradictions that cannot be resolved (message).
Indeed, modern “secular” individuals, institutions and movements meet the criteria that defines the term, “religion”, according to the above masterwork.
0012 The problem?
The US federal government has established a religion, contrary to the first amendment of its constitution.
It so happens, that the religion is not a “religion” (a Christian faction).
0001 In the December 2018 issue of Perspectives on Science and Christian Faith, Amos Yong reviews the compilation, Evolution and the Fall, edited by William T. Cavanaugh and James K. A. Smith (2017, Eerdmans: Grand Rapids, MI, ISBN: 9780802873798).
0002 The book is the product of a three year initiative asking the following if-then question:
(A) If humanity emerges from nonhuman primates, as suggested by genetic, natural historical and archaeological evidence…
(B) …then what are the implications for Christian theology’s traditional account of origins, especially the origin of humanity (B1) and of sin (B2)?
0003 To this question, I attend.
0004 First, the masterwork, The Human Niche, proposes that the ultimate human niche is the potential of triadic relations (B1). Triadic relations are independent of genes and the environment of evolutionary adaptation. Even though these play roles in the actualization of triadic relations, they do not alter the nature of the relations (A).
Triadic relations explain why archaeological evidence exists in the first place (B1, A). Physical evidences are signs of human evolution, to the beholders, that is, ourselves. Obviously, we are adapted to look for and to participate in sign-processes. Signs are one type of triadic relation.
0005 Second, the masterwork, An Archaeology of the Fall, dramatizes the coming to awareness of a recent twist in human evolution (B1 and B2). Our current Lebenswelt is not the Lebenswelt that we evolved in. I call the transition: the first singularity. The first singularity begins around 7821 years ago. It leaves a fairy tale trace.
0006 The hypothesis of the first singularity (B1 and B2) raises novel questions concerning our current living world (B2). What is this the nature of our current Lebenswelt (B2)?
0001 Sociology is often a curious field of inquiry. In the mirror of the world3, there is only one Be Little Men movement (blm). Blm is a slogan2. No substitutions to these words are allowed. The potential1 underlying the slogan2 is fixed on the only possibility among a sea of possible meanings, presences and messages. That potential is the possibility of marxist righteousness1.
Here is a picture of a triadic relation, as introduced in A Primer on the Category-Based Nested Form.
0002 What is marxist righteousness1?
Marx is a “communist” who names his enemy, the “capitalist”.
The specter of “capitalism”?
The root word for “capital” is “head”.
Wrap your cap around that.
0003 Marxist righteousness1 relies on the emptiness of spoken words. A speech-alone word is merely a placeholder in a system of differences. Meaning, presence and message must be projected into each spoken word. The marxist reserves the right to project that meaning, presence and message.
Allow no substitutes.
Substitutions squander the purity of the projection.
0004 What does this mean to me3?
This is what the target of a marxistslogan never asks.
The slogan isolates the guilty.
Originally, the capitalist is the one upon which marxist righteousness descends. The target is guilty, with no option of managing the label, except through submission1. Indeed, the organizational objective2 is to manifest submission1.
Now, other labels serve as slogans2a.
This second nested form situates the first nested form, as described in A Primer on Sensible and Social Construction.
0005 There are two blms. On the content level, blm is a slogan2a emerging from (and situating) righteousness1a. On the situation level, blm manifests organizational objectives2b that actualize the potential of submission1b, thus increasing the wealth, power and overall prowess3b of those reflecting the mirror of the world3a.
According to rumors, advertisers in saavy suites say that executive suits of major corporations donate large sums1b to an organization2b whose namesake is the slogan2a. Other, less well-endowed targets are suited up as scapegoats, following the historic and literary patterns noted by Rene Girard. Marxist righteousness projects a lack, held within the accuser, upon a scapegoat, the target.
0006 Yes, by definition1a, certain types can never submit1b. These characters are magically gifted with the power to create the lack that they are accused of1a as well as the standing to fill that lack with their own… shall I say?.. capitals1b.
0007 Is marxism a modern version of an ancient religion?
Surely, early civilizations sacrifice humans to their gods.
Remember the old adage?
A capitalist will sell the communist the rope to hang himself.
The joke works as long as the target does not comprehend the intent of the customer.
Why would anyone hang the fellow who sold “him” some rope?
Marxist righteousness calls the fellow, a “capitalist”.
The seller’s hanging manifests the realness of the marxist’s organizational objectives1b.
In the same way, ritual sacrifice validates the realness of ancient deities.
0008 What else does this imply?
The target is not privy to what does this mean to me3b. The deadly earnestness of marxist submission1b cannot be appreciated from the outside. The above two-level interscope is sensible only from the inside. The insider holds the secret knowledge3a that secures the slogan’s single possible meaning, presence and message1a.
If a gnostic path blossoms into a social movement, such as the be little men movement, then today’s secular academic sociologists include the topic in their regional and global meetings, showcasing how they are in tune with the emerging secret knowledge. They can explain it. They can write books about it. They can explore its righteousness1a, explicate its slogans2a, develop pathways for submission1b and extol its authority2b. They can conduct surveys in order to show how a slogan has struck a cord in social consciousness3a. They can tell all how the insider feels3b.
0009 Modern sociology is such a curious field of inquiry. It poses as a mirror3a ofthe worldc. As such, it constructs its own sensible approach, in the same fashion as marxist religions.
0010 Five related works are available at www.smashwords.com.
A Primer on the Category Based Nested Form
A Primer on Sensible and Social Construction
How To Define the Word “Religion”
Comments on Eric Santner’s Book (2016) “The Weight of All Flesh”
Comments on Peter Burfeind’s Book (2014) Gnostic America
0058 The other way to game the system comes from the thousand points of light, floating where the leviathan swims, in the heights of the celestial waters. On the surface, we humble folk see these points of illumination self-identify as “not religious”. So, we think that they are not Christian, Jewish or Islamic factions.
Ah, but the meaning of the word “religion” changes.
Is the term still limited to the above-mentioned factions?
Must we continue the charade?
The same goes for the term, “metaphysics”.
Does this term only apply to Christian, Jewish or Islamic theologies?
Or, does the term also apply to the righteousness1aC underlying Big Government (il)Liberal agendas2aC?
0059 If Big Government (il)Liberal institutions (BG(il)L) self-identify as “not religious”, then they must be compatible with science. Their organizational objectives may be taught in public schools, especially when their methodology takes on the style of the empirio-schematic judgment and ends up establishing a noumenon, corresponding to what the phenomena add up to.
Now, here comes a really big sentence.
While ID3a observes and measures1aphenomena1b and demonstrates that the noumenon1b is greater than what available mechanical and mathematical models2a predict, BG(il)L institutions3a rely on ideologically informed models2a applied to selected observations and measurements1a in order to establish phenomena1athat guarantee the relevance of their situation-level empirio-schematic judgment2b.
In effect, certain phenomena1b may be deemed to be so salient that a noumenon1b becomes manifest, thereby warranting the attention of a naturalist intellect3b and establishing the legitimacy of a discipline’s language, models and observations2b.
Phenomena1b may be manufactured in order to project realness into the corresponding noumenon1b. This is the work of the experts in state education.
0060 In order to fully appreciate what comes next, the reader may consider the masterwork, How to Define the Word “Religion” (available at smashwords), especially the chapter on presence.
How do BG(il)L institutions, while self-identifying as “not religious”, establish their doctrines in public schools? How do “not religious” institutions establish a state religion?
Clearly, they game Michael Ruse’s demarcation criteria. They pretend to be a science by mimicking the methodology (just like ID does). But, they do not get caught (like ID gets caught).
Then, they game Robert Pennock’s demarcation criteria, by self-identifying as “not religious”. Therefore, they not subject to scrutiny when they violate the first amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
0061 So how are BG(il)L institutions religious?
There are two types of religion, based on two distinctly different objects in the society tierC. One2cC is assumed3cC. This relational object2cC builds civilizations or destroys them. The other2aC belongs to institutions3aC. Organizational objects2aC emerge from (and situate) the potential of righteousness1aC.
Organizational objects2aC are religious.
0062 Only two associations are required (S and T).
The organizational objective2aC of a “not religious” BG(il)L institution3aC goes with a noumenon1b (S), which is where metaphysics is quietly stuffed according to the dictates of the naturalist intellect3b.
By focusing on observations and measurements2a that contribute to the feeling that the corresponding phenomena1b are real, these institutions generate the impression of a metaphysics-filled noumenon1b, the thing itself, which may take on a life of its own. Both apparent phenomena1b and their spectral noumenon1b support a situation-level actuality2b that reifies the entire content levela.
Righteousness1aC associates with the entire content level of methodologicala naturalismb (T).
Scientific method is the foundation of BG(il)L belief.
Righteousness mimics the empirio-schematic judgment by promoting a disciplinary language3a, ideologically-informed mechanical models2a and selective observations and measurements1a. The content-level nested forma establishes the realness of the situation-level actuality2a, by establishing irrefutable phenomena1b. The realness of the situation-level actuality2a, plus the unassailable status of the phenomena1b, establish an undeniable noumenon1b, containing a metaphysically informed BG(il)L organizational objective2aC.
In 1981, The Creation Science is attacked by the leviathan for a crude imitation of what BG(il)L institutions have been doing for over two decades. In 2005, The Intelligent Design is mauled for a more sophisiticated imitation. Our world is indeed upside down.
In each BG(il)L institution, observations and measurements1a are selected to support mechanistic and ideological models2a and guide the believer’s definition of words3a. The “not religious” believer then accepts the realness of the corresponding phenomena1b and the realness of the corresponding noumenon1b.
Remember, the phenomena1b carry the imprint of selective observations1a, righteousness-inspired models2a and virtue-signaling disciplinary language3a. These elementsa are inherently meta- (crossing out of) -physical (material and instrumental causality), even though couched in the methodology of science.
Remember, the noumenon1b carries a BG(il)L organizational objective2aC, which is inherently religious.
In sum, the veracity of a BG(il)L institution’s empirio-schematic judgment2b is supported by the righteousness of the content-level’s disciplinary language3a, models2a and observations1a. The BG(il)L’s phenomena1b cannot be refuted. The BG(il)L’s noumenon1b is undeniable. Those who question the veracity of the institution’s normal context3a, actualities2aand potentials1a must be regarded as not properly informed. They are not righteous1aC.
What are public schools supposed to do?
Properly inform students?
Or indoctrinate them with “not religious” values?
0063 Here is diagram of how BG(il)L institutions game the system.
0064 Surely, the Christians have given the leviathan enough rope. Pull the creature in and let these heavenly waters descend. Perhaps, the celestial ocean of BG(il)L will fall on its own. Can a sea of government liquidity levitate on borrowed and printed money? How long can this inversion continue?
Can it reign for a thousand years?
Pennock’s essay is intended to clarify the 2005 Kitzmiller case and to provide a rule of thumb to distinguish science and religion. These comments show how Pennock’s rule can be gamed. It was gamed before his participation in the debate. It is being gamed after.
0065 What is the problem?
Is methodical naturalism crowding Christianity from the public square?
Or, is methodological naturalism allowing “not religious” BG(il)L doctrines into the public square?
Clearly, both dynamics are at play.
0066 I thank Robert Pennock for his challenging article.
0052 The world is inverted. Above us stands the celestial ocean of Big Government (il)Liberalism (BG(il)L). Below ushovers an atmosphere where Christianity, Judaism and Islam are designated “religions”, and therefore excluded, by the first amendment of the U.S. Constitution, from public (that is, state) institutions, especially schools. Their sublimation begins during the 1960s.
Die-hard Christians respond by generating something that appears to be science. Creation science makes claims about natural events verifying Biblical witness.
In 1981, the leviathan of BG(il)L public education sweeps down to the surface and attacks the little ship, The Creation Science, and ruins its effectiveness. Creation Science does not properly follow style of the empirio-schematic judgment. The McLean case distinguishes between science and religion on the basis of methodology.
0054 The captain of the ship lost one leg. But, he fashions a new one in the style of the empirio-schematic judgment. He rebuilds the ship, branding it TheIntelligent Design.
In 2005, the leviathan is again provoked to come down through the celestial waters and attack the ship. The ship has a lance that pierces the skin of the leviathan. The Intelligent Design forces experts, such as Pennock, to come up with a demarcation that is situational. Intelligent Design does not follow the rule of the naturalist intellect. That rule says, “No metaphysics.”
In addition, the naturalist’s rule is not based on anything physical. So, the rule must be metaphysical.
0055 These comments reveal how the rule plays out. Metaphysics must be hidden within the presence of the thing itself, the noumenon1b, which is contiguous with those properties that can be observed and measured, the phenomena1b. The [contiguity] mirrors the rule. A noumenon1b [cannot be objectified as] its phenomena1b.
Here is how that looks.
0056 What does The Intelligent Design do that the Creation Science does not?
The Intelligent Design is equipped with an empirio-schematic judgment that observes and measures phenomena that do not fully add up to their noumenon, the thing itself. ID favors things that are very complicated, such as the bacteria’s flagellum or the human immune system, where many components are observed and measured1a. Their corresponding phenomena1b can never explain the thing itself: the bacteria swims and the human recovers from an illness. The models2aare never sufficient. The whole is so much greater than the parts. The investigator experiences awe. The investigator is struck by a noumenon, but cannot say so, since “religion” is banished from disciplinary language.
The empirio-schematic judgment2b is supposed to virtually emerge from (and situate) mechanical and mathematical models2a. Methodologicala naturalismb has a redundancy. The situation-level actuality2b re-capitulates the content-level nested forma. The situation-level actuality2b completes the content-level nested forma. There should be no surplus2b, because any surplus2b flows into something1b that cannot be objectified as phenomena1b. This something1b is where metaphysics is hidden, according to the dictates of the naturalist intellect3b. ID aims to show that the noumenon1b has a lifec of its own, a life1c that his hidden by the rule of the naturalist intellect3b on the order of someone or something upstairs2c.
Here is how that looks.
0057 That’s one way to game Pennock’s system.In 2005, the celestial leviathan mauls, but does not destroy the ship, The Intelligent Design. Plus, the leviathan takes a lance into its flank. The lance reveals the barbed fact that the leviathan depends on a metaphysical rule, stating that metaphysics is not allowed in science. The rope tied to the lance is long. Perhaps, 14 years long. Cheers.
0035 In the sixth section of Robert Pennock’s Essay, titled “Can’t Philosophers Tell the Difference between Science and Religion?: Demarcation Revisited”, the author speculates why Larry Laudan fails to see a demarcation between science and religion. After all, it is so easy to see. Look at the rules.
Religion inspires the nautical mission of The Intelligent Design, in an inverted world, where Big Government (il)Liberalism commands the waters above and the world of tradition sublimates into the atmosphere below. The ocean is our ceiling. The air is our floor.
A thousand points of light shine in the immense celestial ocean. Each illumination is immersed in its own righteousness. A leviathan swims high in these heavenly, dense, waters. This leviathan addresses the issue of public education. The states require it. The states pay for it. The states perform it. It works even as Big Government (il)Liberalism turns the ocean into the sky. How it weighs upon us.
The U.S. Constitution says that the government shall not establish a religion. So, public education may teach science, which is not “religious”, but not Creation Science nor Intelligent Design, which are religious.
Here, “religion” means “a Christian faction”.
Pennock writes in triumph.
0036 Section 6 of Pennock’s essay diagnoses and rehabilitates Laudan.
Why does Laudan fail at recognizing the distinction between science and religion?
Pennock offers four reasons (S-V).
0037 First (S), Laudan does not take the creationist’s claims seriously. Creationists hold epistemological assumptions unfamiliar to science.
What does this mean?
The crew of The Creation Science promotes bad method. They do not adhere to the empirio-schematic judgment, because their disciplinary language includes metaphysics (that is, Christian theology).
0038 Second (T), Laudan does not frame the demarcation problem properly. We should not expect a “strict” line, based on criteria about methods.
To me, this means that the two-level interscope confuses. There are always two issues, one related to situation and one related to content. Here, the content level concerns scientific practice (that is, method). The situation level pertains to the Naturalist’s judgment (that includes, “no metaphysics”).
0039 Third (U), Laudan is influenced by Karl Popper’s claims that falsification defines scientific methodology.
Once again, the content level is the focus of attention.
0040 Fourth (V), the 2005 Kitzmiller decision does not appeal to falsification as demarcation criteria. Rather, it appeals to the very issue that Laudan seems to miss: The naturalist intellect3b rules out metaphysics.
Pennock wonders, more or less, “What should we think about philosophers (such as Laudan), if they cannot distinguish between science and sectarian religion posing as science?”
I suspect both Pennock and his foil, Laudan, recognize the difference.
The question is, “What makes the difference real?”
Laudan says that the distinction is not real, because we cannot ascertain clear and valid demarcation criteria.
Well, he may not really say that. Pennock’s foil says that.
0041 The real difference concerns following the rules. Naturalism rules metaphysics out. Religion rules metaphysics in. The demarcation should express that fact that the rule of “no metaphysics” applies to naturalism but not Christian factions… I mean to say… “religion”.
To me, the issue shifts from methods to something more ambiguous. How does one decide whether the naturalist intellect’s rule is valid or not? The decision cannot be based on physics. The decision must be based on metaphysics.
The rule, “no metaphysics”, must ultimately be based on metaphysics.
0042 That means that free will enters the picture.
Pennock takes the naturalist rule at face value. Naturalism rules out metaphysics. Therefore, it is “not religious”. Does this mean that any institution that self-identifies as “not religious” can also say that it is “scientific”? Can this rule be gamed?
After all, this is precisely the issue in both 1981 McLean and 2005 Kitzmiller contests. Creation science blatantly tries to game the rule. Later, Intelligent Design (ID) games the rule in a much more sophisticated style. ID mimics the empirio-schematic judgment, occupying the content-level, while (sneakily) violating the naturalist’s rule of “no metaphysics”.
ID’s logic is easy to see. If an evolved attribute, such as a bacteria’s flagellum, is not possible, then a miracle must have occurred. A “mythical being” must have intervened.
0043 What does this “mythical being” do?
The mythical being does not cobble together phenomena. The mythical being creates a noumenon, the thing itself.
The merit to ID can thus be articulated, by saying, “God creates a noumenon and the scientists observe and measure its phenomena. Sometimes, phenomena do not fully account for their noumenon. This is the case for the bacteria’s flagellum and other biological structures.”
0044 Here is a picture of that statement.
0045 What potentiates the naturalist intellect3b?
The dyad, a noumenon [cannot be objectified as] its phenomena1b, does. This dyad belongs to what is1b in the Naturalist’s judgment. This element is imbued with firstness, because phenomena are defined by their potential1b to be observed and measured1a and a noumenon1b has the potential1b of being discussed3a by the naturalist intellect3b.
The two components of this dyad tie into the content-level nested form of methodology. A noumenon1b stands as the presence that is referred to in disciplinary language3a. Its phenomena1b virtually (meaning, “in virtue”) emerges from and situates observations and measurements1a. The contiguity1b is [cannot be objectified as].
0047 What does this imply?
The contiguity between a noumenon and its phenomena1b cannot be explained by physics.
But, the naturalist intellect3b has a rule that says, “Metaphysics is not allowed.”
0048 Hmmm. Have I located the metaphysical commitment within the Naturalist’s judgment?
The naturalist intellect3b assigns the metaphysical aspect of creation to the noumenon1b, which cannot be objectified as its phenomena1b. So, disciplinary language3a assumes the presence of the thing itself, the noumenon1b, but dares not speak of it, for fear of violating the rule of “no metaphysics”3b.
Physics cannot justify the rule of the naturalist intellect. So, it must be metaphysical.
Also, the source of this commitment comes from the empty perspective levelc.
0049 The naturalist3b hides the source2c of its metaphysical rule of “no metaphysics”.
What does this imply?
The system can be gamed.
We can cobble together phenomena in a manner that will tempt us into believing that a noumenon exists.
For example, in the 19th century, various physical phenomena point to a noumenon, which scientists label “the ether”. The ether transports force through vacuum. As it turns out, the ether is completely imaginary. It is a mythical being.
0051 If science is “not religious”, then can a “not religious” religion game Pennock’s criteria, not from the side of Christianity, Judaism and Islam (which cannot shake the designation, “religious”), but from the side of the Big Government (il)Liberalism (where self-identification as “not religious” is common)?
0026 In 1981, the ship, The Creation Science, encounters the leviathan swimming in the celestial waters. The captain loses a leg to stand on, but realizes that he can fashion a new leg even better than the first. He repairs the ship and re-brands her, The Intelligent Design. In 2005, this ship lures the leviathan down from its heavenly deep, once again.
In this interval, philosopher Larry Laudan vigorously attacks the foundation of the leviathan’s first victory. He pulls teeth. He demolishes the argument that science and religion may be distinguished on the basis of method.
Finally, The Intelligent Design opens sail with a methodology identical to the empirio-schematic judgment and coherent with its content-level nested form. The normal context of disciplinary language3a, describing methods, brings the actuality of metaphysically-open models2a into relation with the possibilities inherent in observations and measurments1a.
0027 Once again, here is the two-level interscope for methodologicala naturalismb.
0028 Pennock wants to defend the demarcation of science and religion. Method does not offer sufficient critieria. So, he configures a new foundation. He calls it “methodological naturalism”. But, the “methoda” has already been neutralized by Laudan. So, “naturalismb” is the key.
To this end, in section 5 of this article, Pennock constructs a weak version of the distinction between science and religion, one that grants many of Laudan’s points. Tellingly, instead of referring to the ship’s new name, The Intelligent Design, Pennock sticks to the old label, The Creation Science.
Pennock writes four sub-sections (O-R).
0029 The first (O) concerns the dustbin of history.
Creation Science is not even a bad science. For example, some say that the Earth is only a few thousand years old. Others say that Noah’s Flood is global. These models are not supported by data.
0030 The second (P) concerns disciplinary language.
The ship, The Creation Science, has no coherent disciplinary language, outside of Biblical interpretation. The language of Intelligent Design is also incoherent. Even if one observes phenomena associated to impossible events, one cannot conclude that the events are miraculous.
Okay, one can conclude that the events are miraculous. But, that would violate the rules of the naturalist intellect3b.
0031 The third (Q) is pragmatic.
Methodological naturalists recognize science. Why can’t philosophers like Laudan? Why are courses on the philosophy of science not taught by theologians?
What do the sailors on The Intelligent Design hear?
Someone in the waters asks, “Why are courses on the philosophy of religion not taught by scientists? Er… I mean… taught by highly certified naturalists who self-identify as ‘not religious’?”
Oh, never mind, they are.
0032 The fourth (R) is empirical.
Science educators say that there is a real distinction between science and non-science, such as Creation Science. The National Science Teacher’s Association insists that scientific claims are not religious.
Or, should I say that the empirio-schematic judgment is not religious?
What about “scientific” or methodological naturalism?
Is that not religious?
Of course, the rule of naturalism says, “No metaphysics.”
Who is surprised that no mechanical or mathematical models appeal to supernatural forces?
Pennock finally feels the sharp point of an issue that cannot be confronted. He states that his account explicates “scientific” naturalism as a methodological commitment, not a metaphysical one. The ground rule of “no metaphysics” is… um… not metaphysical.
0033 Say what?
What is the philosopher’s task?
Is it possible for a philosopher to accept that the claim to be “not religious” may, indeed, be not religious?
Since when do philosophers spout tautologies?
Take a glance, once again, at the two-level interscope for methodological naturalism.
There is a certain circularity to the structure. The content-levela is the empirio-schematic judgment. The empirio-schematic judgment is the actuality2 of the situation levelb.
0034 Where does the ground rule of “no metaphysics” come from?
First, the world is upside down. The ocean of Big Government (il)Liberalism sloshes above, as a world suspended in surreal liquidity, heavy and looming. The regulatory sea holds a thousand points of light, each submerged in its own righteousness. A leviathan swims in these celestial waters. This leviathan applies the first amendment of the U.S. Constitution to education by state and federally funded institutions. These schools may teach science, but not religion. Here, “religion” means “a Christian faction”.
Second, a small boat, initially named The Creation Science, then later (after the unfortunate moment when the captain lost a leg to stand on) named The Intelligent Design, floats on the surface, that is, the bottom, of this inverted ocean. This boat hunts the above-mentioned leviathan. The academically inclined sailors fashion a lance of that looks like the methodological level of science. But, the captain does not fully comprehend what harm it can do.
0024 Philosopher Larry Laudan comes under scrutiny in the fourth section of Pennock’s essay. After the McLean case (the leg-bite), this philosopher writes three articles denying a demarcation between science and religion. There are no criteria for strictly distinguishing what is religious, what is scientific, what is pseudo-scientific and what is unscientific.
Laudan struggles mightily against the criteria of Michael Ruse (A-E).
Two arguments support his conclusions (M and N).
The first (M) says, more or less, “There is a lack of unity between philosophers about the demarcation criteria.”
Okay, experts rarely agree. That is the nature of experts.
The second (N) says, more or less, “The 1981 McLean versus Arkansas case is hollow, because it canonizes a false stereotype of what science is and how it works.”
I suspect that this is correct because Ruse’s criteria (A-E) pertain to what is and what ought to be in the Naturalist’s judgment. The empirio-schematic judgment (what ought to be) unfolds into the content level of the following two-level interscope. The Naturalist’s judgment unfolds into the situation level.
0025 Michael Ruse’s criteria (A-E) draw attention to the content level.
Perhaps, this is why the author, Robert Pennock, wants to set the record straight.
The 1981 McLean case focuses on the content of science.
The 2005 Kitzmiller case focuses on the situation of science.
What does this suggest?
0025 The Intelligent Design comes up with a better tactic. Of Pandas and People follows the style of the empirio-schematic judgment. Ruse’s criteria lack teeth.Pennock sees this and proposes that science must be distinguished, not on the methodological levela, but on the naturalism levelb. The ground rule of the naturalist intellect3b is “no metaphysics”.