Looking at Andrew Ter Ern Loke’s Book (2022) ” The Origin of Humanity and Evolution”   (Part 1 of 22)

0001 The book under examination is published by T&T Clark in New York, London and Dublin, carries an ISBN number: 978-0-5677-0635-5, and presents the full title of The Origin of Humanity and Evolution: Science and Scripture in Conversation.

This examination considers the book from the point of view of Razie Mah’s three masterworks, The Human Niche, An Archaeology of the Fall and How To Define The Word “Religion”, corresponding to the Lebenswelt that we evolved inthe first singularity and our current Lebenswelt, respectively.

Needless to say, in this volume, Andrew Ter Ern Loke is not aware of the scientific proposals offered by Razie Mah’s masterworks.  His goal is to formulate a point of view whereby the role of Adam and Eve in Augustine’s Christian tradition does not contradict the modern view of human evolution, which is surpassed by Razie Mah’s corrective.

The goal of this examination is to show that Loke intimates the proposed scientific corrective, even though he is unaware of its existence.

0002 According to the back cover, in 2022, Andrew Ter Ern Loke is an associate professor at Hong Kong Baptist University.  In the acknowledgements, the author thanks scientists, philosophers, a historian of science, biblical scholars and theologians for helpful discussions.  Among the list is William Lane Craig, whose recent book, The Historical Adam, is reviewed in November 2022 in Razie Mah’s blog.

Loke’s book is dedicated to a computational biologist, Joshua Swamidass, who proposes a technical solution that permits all humans to descend from one male, named “Adam”, and that one “Adam” corresponds to the one mentioned in Genesis 2.4 on.

0003 Technical solution?

There are two stories of human origins in the formerly Christian West, the Christian ones are found in Genesis and the modern Western ones concern the scientific disciplines of natural history, genetics and archaeology.  So the question arises, asking, “How do these match?”

They would match if “Adam” is the first human.  After all, the name, “adamah”, is ambiguous, referring to humankind, the male of the species, as well as one apparently ill-fated fellow once living on an island, in a special place called, “Eden”, near the confluence of four rivers, including the Tigris and Euphrates.

0004 Unfortunately, the scientific discipline of genetics rules out that option. Adam and Eve are not the first pair of humans.  Contemporary human population genetics shows no sharp bottleneck that would correspond to a single pair as the first humans (as proposed by Saint Augustine, over 1600 years ago, during the twilight of the Roman Empire).  This lack of correspondence opens the opportunity for other technical solutions, such as the genealogical approach by Joshua Swamidass and the approach formulated in Loke’s book.  Neither Swamidass nor Loke propose that Adam and Eve are the first humans.  Loke designates Adam as “God’s Image Bearer” and works from there.

0005 Here is a different way to look at the issue.

Imagine a map of the Nile, running up through Africa to the Mediterranean Sea.  Now, pick up a mental pencil and relabel parts of the great river.

0006 The first chapter of Genesis is the upper reaches of the southern Nile, with the great lake, named “Victoria” (to those who speak English).  Genesis 2.4-10 is like the lower reaches of the northern Nile, ending in the magnificent delta.  The Mediterranean is where history begins.

Imagine that there is a great waterfall between the upper and lower reaches, instead of a series of impassable rapids.  Upland from the waterfall is the time of De Nile.  Downland from the waterfall is the time of DeNial.  The waterfall is the first singularity.

A traveler, starting at the falls, can theoretically walk in both directions, along De Nile or along DeNial.  But, there is the challenge of the descent and the ascent.  Looking from the top of the falls, one cannot see the bottom.  Looking from the bottom of the falls, one cannot see the top.  However, at either location, the traveler knows that there must be a bottom and there must be a top.

Well, the traveler does not really know for certain.

The traveler only looks down from the top or up from the bottom and makes a guess about the other realm.

0006 As if to repeat the pattern, Loke’s book takes a turn near the middle of the text, in section five of chapter five, carrying the title, “The Image of God”.

Loke writes that Adam and Eve, labeled by God as “Image Bearers of God”, are the first human beings.  This does not require them to be the first anatomically modern humans or the genetic founders of all humans.  Rather, the key issue is how humans are defined.

0007 It is sort of like that imaginary waterfall.

If one stands upstream, which is highland and south, human beings are defined by the scientific scenario summarized in section 5.1.

If one stands downstream, which is lowland and north, various philosophers and religious traditions offer opinions as to what humans are.  Loke mentions Plato, Aristotle, Upanishadic Hinduism, Buddhism, Marxism, existentialism, sociobiology and contemporary philosophy.  Each has a unique definition of “the human”.

The waterfall is neither upstream nor downstream.  The waterfall is contiguous with both.

How does this division within continuity work?

0008 The Greimas square may assist.  The Greimas square is a purely relational structure that is useful for discerning a constellation of meanings that surround a particular spoken term.

A century ago, the linguist Ferdinand de Saussure proposed that spoken language consists in two arbitrarily related systems of differences, parole (French for “talk”) and langue (French for “language”).  One system is external.  Parolecan be scientifically observed and measured.  Langue is internal, only certain changes in physiological conditions can be observed and measured.

0009 So, the question arises, “How does one define any particular spoken phrase or word?”

That is the subject of Razie Mah’s masterwork, How To Define the Word “Religion”, available at smashwords and other e-book venues.

0010 Happily, for this examination, there is method that respects the purely relational configuration posed by Saussure.

That method is the Greimas square.

0011 Here is a picture.

Figure 01

0012 The focal term goes with A.

The first contrast of A that comes to mind enters B.

Then, a term that contradicts B goes into C.  The term, “contradicts”, may be transliterated into “speaks against”.  So, C speaks against B.  Then, one finds that C complements A.

Finally, a contrast that comes to mind with C goes into D.  Then, one should find that D speaks against A and complements B.

0013 The Greimas square is a probe of the terms that are adjacent to (or metaphorically “near”) a focal term (A).

0014 The following figure applies to Loke’s discussion of Adam and Eve as the first “Image Bearers of God”.

Figure 02

0015 We are the descendants of Adam (A), so we are heir to his title, “Image Bearer of God”.

But, there is a problem.  Adam falls.  So do we.

In contrast, many philosophies and traditions define who we are (B) without regard to God’s original appellation.

Speaking against the philosophers and traditionalists, Adam is the first holding the title (C), which will be passed on to the rest of humanity by means that are not genetic.  So, despite all other opinion, Adam is… er, at least… was… until, you know, the unfortunate incident… the first bearer of this title.  I suppose he never lost the title…

…he just made a bad decision that doomed all of subsequent humanity.

In contrast, the Biblical use of adam (technically, “adamah”) is a pun which means “earth man” or “humanity” (D).

This raises the question as to whether adam as humanity (D) contradicts (A) humans labeled as the Image Bearers of Godand complements (B) “humans” defined by philosophers and other religious traditions.

I suppose that one could argue for “yes”, as well as “no”.

0016 As it turns out, the metaphor of a map of the Nile River, altered by a number 2 pencil, also fits into a Greimas square.

Figure 03

Looking at Andrew Ter Ern Loke’s Book (2022) ” The Origin of Humanity and Evolution”   (Part 2 of 22)

0017 What is a Lebenswelt?

A Lebenswelt is German for a “living world”.

0018 In chapter three, Loke discusses the time spans of creation.  The universe is around 14Byr (billions of years old).  The Earth is 4.5Byr.  If the solar system rotates around the galactic center every 250 million years, then the solar system has completed only 18 orbits of the galactic center.  The solar system is 18 galactic years old.

Does that seem old?

0019 Could there be an eyewitness to the evolutionary construction of our home, the Earth?

Plus, why would an eyewitness portray the vision as a sequence of seven days?

The answer to the second question is straightforward.  The Creation Story, the first chapter of Genesis, is used to establish the sabbath as the day of the Lord.  Work six days and rest, along with God, on the seventh.  If someone loses count, watch the phases of the moon.  The heavens keep track of time.  Time passes on Earth, as it does in heaven.

0020 The Creation Story takes us far upstream the river of time, to long before De Nile.  Loke quotes Saint Augustine, asking what kind of days are these.  They defy our sensibilities and challenge our imagination.  The Young Earth Creations reply, saying, “These are literal days, with evening and morning.”

So, they could belong to a visionary.

0021 To me, the first chapter of Genesis belongs to our current Lebenswelt, yet looks past its beginning (which I call, “the first singularity”) into the Lebenswelt that we evolved in.  It is a recital, in speech-alone talk, describing a sequence of… can I say?.. developments that could not be witnessed by a person, except as a series of visions.

Here is a Greimas square where the Creation Story is the focus of attention.

Figure 04

The final term, D, contrasts with C, speaks against A and complements B.

D contrasts with C because it is like a formal cause compared to C as a final cause.

D speaks against A in that the story does not proclaim itself to be a vision.  How can it be a vision if the Genesis text does not say that it is a vision?  Well, some Biblical scholars say that the Creation Story is something like a vision.  It is the construction of the Temple of the Heavens and the Earth.   

Finally, D complements B, because the first chapter of Genesis is one of the oldest written origin stories known to scholars.  In fact, archaeologists conclude that the literary style of the Creation Story is very much in tune with other written religious proclamations of the ancient Near East.  The first chapter of Genesis may be older than writing.

0022 And, that brings me back to the term, “Lebenswelt”.

The animal version of this word is “Umwelt”, technically defined as the world of significance for any particular animal.  The dog’s Umwelt is full of aromas.  The bat’s Umwelt is full of acoustic echoes.  The eagle’s Umwelt includes tiny clues to the motion of animals through grass.  The human’s Umwelt includes all of nature, plus ourselves.  As soon as hominins start walking on two feet, their hands are free to gesture to one another.  So begins the evolution of our Lebenswelt, our world of significance.  Our Lebenswelt includes both nature and culture.  The German word, “Lebenswelt”, transliterates into “living world”.

0023 According to Razie Mah’s masterwork, The Human Niche (available at smashwords and other e-book venues), the human niche consists of the potential of triadic relations.  Signs are triadic relations.  So are category-based nested forms.  Consequently, our Lebenswelt is perfused with signs and category-based nested forms (which can be proto-semiotic).  Sign-processing is one of the key hominin adaptations.

0024 So, a question arises, “Is the first chapter of Genesis a sign of the evolutionary record?”

Loke does not address this question.Nevertheless it bears on his discussion on the time spans of geological and biological evolution in contrast to the days of creation.


Looking at Andrew Ter Ern Loke’s Book (2022) ” The Origin of Humanity and Evolution”   (Part 3 of 22)

0025 Is Genesis 1 a sign of the evolutionary record?

If it is, then it is a sign composed of signs.

In other words, the answer is not straightforward.

0026 Charles Peirce (1839-1914 AD), the founder of postmodern semiotics, defined a sign as a triadic relation.  A sign-relation consists of a sign-vehicle, a sign-object and a sign-interpretant.

Here is a picture of the sign-relation.

Figure 05

An encountered thing (sign-vehicle) stands for the hylomorphe, matter [substantiates] form (sign-object) in regards to Aristotle’s natural philosophy (sign-interpretant).

On the surface, the sign-vehicle associates to Peirce’s category of firstness, which contains only one element (however complex that element may be).  For example, an image or a person belongs to the category of firstness (there is only one of them) and may serve as a sign-vehicle.  Firstness is the realm of possibility.

On the surface, the sign-object associates to Peirce’s category of secondness, which contains two contiguous real elements.  Perhaps the most famous example is Aristotle’s hylomorphe.  Matter and form are two real contiguous elements.  According to my nomenclature, the contiguity is placed in brackets.  In the previous figure, I use the term, “substance”, to label the contiguity between matter and form.  Secondness is the realm of actuality.

On the surface, the sign-interpretant associates to Peirce’s category of thirdness, which contains three elements, one belonging to each category.  Thirdness brings secondness into relation with firstness.  Thirdness is the realm of signs, normal contexts, mediations, judgments and so on.

0027 So, why the qualifier, “on the surface”?

Take a look at the sign-vehicle.  Obviously, the sign-vehicle should belong to firstness, because it makes the sign-relation possible.  At the same time, the sign-vehicle is an encountered thing.  So, it must belong to the realm of actuality.  The sign-vehicle must be so actual as to trigger the operation of a sign-interpretant.  For example, a silver coin (sign-vehicle) stands for the metal silver [substantiating] a round imprinted form (sign-object) in regards to an Aristotelian view of money (sign-interpretant).  Come to think of it, the sign object also belongs to the realm of actuality.

0028 Why is the triadic structure of the sign-relation important?

Both Genesis One and the evolutionary record are actual.  Yet, on the surface, the Creation Story associates to firstness and the scientific evolutionary record associates to secondness.  So, the former should be taken as a sign-vehicle and the latter should be regarded as a sign-object. 

What do these associations imply?

Genesis One is a sign of the evolutionary record.

So, in a day-age association, the day corresponds to a passage in the Genesis text and the age corresponds to a period in the evolutionary record.  The day is the sign-vehicle and the age is the sign-object.  The sign-interpretant will rely on a sign-typology based on natural signs.

0028 To start, here are the day-age associations for days one through three.

Figure 06

0029 Here are the day-age associations for days four through six.

Figure 07

0030 Here are the verse-age associations for the creation of humans in the image of God.

Figure 08

0031 The first chapter of Genesis concludes with a sign of the Developed Neolithic, setting the stage for a second creation of humans, starting with Genesis 2.4.

0032 The Genesis day is the sign-vehicle.  The corresponding scientific epoch is the sign-object.

What about the sign-interpretant?

Peirce identifies three types of natural sign, based on the categorical qualities of the sign-object.

For an icon, the sign-object carries the categorical qualities of firstness.  So, I read a Genesis verse as a picture of the corresponding epoch.

For an index, the sign-object carries the categorical qualities of secondness.  So, I read a Genesis verse as something that points to a characteristic of the corresponding epoch, especially in regards to what the visionary must be wondering about the ongoing revelation.  An index points to the location of the witness.  The Genesis statements about morning and evening are indexes.

For a symbol, the sign-object carries the categorical qualities of thirdness.  So, I read a Genesis verse in terms of convention.  The declaration at the end of most days, where God declares the day, “good”, associates with symbols.

0033 Here is a list of the three types of natural sign.

Figure 09

0034 For example, in day four, the text points to a visionary, located on the surface of the Earth, looking up, and witnessing the haze of the atmosphere of the early Earth clear away as the atmosphere increases in oxygen content.

Here is a picture of the associations, based on sign-typology as the sign-interpretant.

Figure 10

0035 In sum, in day four, the stars, planets, moon and sun become visible.


Looking at Andrew Ter Ern Loke’s Book (2022) ” The Origin of Humanity and Evolution”   (Part 4 of 22)

0036 Of course, none of this sign business shows up in Loke’s chapter three, concerning the time span of creation, or chapter four, concerning the process of evolutionary creationism.

Nonetheless, the sign business is relevant because we are moving upstream from the falls along the metaphorical Nile.  Yes, this is the one on the map that we altered with a pencil.

0037 We regard the seven days of creation (A), while looking though abstractions that are typical of our current Lebenswelt (B).  In doing so, we cross a epistemological boundary between scripture and science (C), which must imply that a conversation may take place.  But, can a conversation proceed if one of the conversants says that each Genesis day is literally true and is composed of what we current label a “day”?  Yes, if the Creation Story is a sequence of visions (D).

0038 Here is a picture of the corresponding Greimas square.

Figure 11

0039 The focus is the first Genesis Creation Story (A, sign-vehicle).

The contrast is the idea that each day keys into Peirce’s typology of natural signs (B, sign-interpretant).

The actual correspondences (C) speak against the idea (B), just as any application of an idea speaks against the idea.  Since when are ideas perfectly applied?

0040 For example, the end of day three associates with the earliest photosynthetic life, which looks like slime.  Yes, mats of green or red or purple slime, bearing according to their slimes.  So, the visionary must be a little perplexed.

In day three, the Genesis text breaks the previous pattern, by mentioning two creations in one day.  The associations are to the formation of the earliest continents and to the earliest appearance of life on Earth, which includes photosynthetic bacteria, which form colorful mats on most anything wet.  In fact, the slime looks like anything but fruit trees bearing fruit and plants bearing seed.  These bacteria do not have chloroplasts, the photosynthetic organelle in almost all multicellular plants.  They are the precursors to chloroplasts.

0041 Consequently, the application of the idea of sign typology requires some interpretive flexibility.

Figure 12

0042 But, that does not mean that the interpretant of sign-typology does not work.  Rather, the idea seems even more promising, because the vision (D) is necessarily mind-boggling.  

0043 Consider three titles.

The Creation Story and Evolution

Genesis One As A Sign of the Evolutionary Record

The Creation of Man and Human Evolution

These titles are over twenty years old.

Yet, they are as fresh as the dawn of a new Age of Understanding.


Looking at Andrew Ter Ern Loke’s Book (2022) ” The Origin of Humanity and Evolution”   (Part 5 of 22)

0044 In chapter one, Loke describes three types of concordism.

Type A seeks to describe scientific information from scriptural passages.

Type B seeks to interpret scriptural texts in light of modern science.

Type C affirms that the Bible should be interpreted according to proper hermeneutical principles, such as taking into consideration its Near Eastern context, including Near Eastern literary genres.

0045 Clearly, the proposition that the first chapter of Genesis is a sign of the evolutionary record dovetails into all three, except for one caveat.  Replace the word, “science’, with the word, “semiotics”.

0046 Type A’ seeks to describe semiotic information from scriptural passages.

What semiotic information?

When reading a passage from any particular day in the Creation Story, ask first, “Is this an icon.”.  Can the evolutionary record be seen as an image of this verse?  If not an icon, ask second, “Is this an index?”  Does this verse point to either the corresponding evolutionary era, or to the location of the visionary, or to what the visionary must wondering.  If not an index, ask third, “Is this a symbol?”

0047 Here is an example.

Figure 13

Day two associates to the formation of the Earth and Moon.  During the formation of the solar system, the Earth forms as a super-hot little planet sweeping in debris within its orbit around the early Sun.  From the point of view of someone on the surface of the nascent planet, the firmament appears as “the waters above” separate from “the waters below”.  At the time, both the Moon and the Earth, are molten.  The molten above separates from the molten below.

The separation is an icon.  It is also an index, once God names one of the waters.  God calls the firmament, “heaven”.  The name serves as an index, but also as a symbol of what this means to the visionary.

So, I wonder, “Why this particular semiotic information?  Why does Peirce’s typology of natural signs allow me to appreciate the sign-vehicles of the Genesis texts as sign-objects in the evolutionary record?

Could it be that sign-processing is particularly relevant to how humans came to be?

Is sign-processing a human adaptation?

Are sign-interpretants built into our bodies and souls?

0048 Type B’ seeks to interpret scriptural texts in light of modern semiotics.

Can the associations in Type A’ be called an interpretation of scripture?

Or, do the associations in Type A’ call for an interpretation.

What do these types of semiotic information imply?

0049 Perhaps, Genesis One embodies more than an ancient Near Eastern depiction of the formation of God’s tent of the heavens and the earth.  It also serves as a lock, whose key is a principle that constitutes an adaptation into the human niche.  Sign-processing flows out of the headwaters of De Nile and carves the landscape above the treacherous falls.

0050 Type C’ is the same as type C.  The hermeneutics of the book of Genesis must take into account the genres of ancient Near East literature.  However, we must keep in mind that, even in the time of Moses, this literature is ancient.  By the time the so-called “redactor” starts weaving the various stories in Genesis into a (more or less) coherent frame, the oral traditions are so old that no one is aware that the Near East is littered with these odd little hills, containing the burnt remains of royal libraries, where clay cuneiform tablets have been fired into bricks.

0051 Thank God that these civilizations slavishly follow the writing techniques of their forefathers, the Sumerians, who carve out cuneiform wedges from wet clay tablets.  Whenever an ancient royal library burns, the clay tablets convert into brick tablets, capable of retaining their integrity while buried for thousands of years.

Archaeologists rejoice.  A handful of recovered cuneiform tablets convey a message that not Moses, nor Saint Paul, nor Saint Augustine, nor Saint Thomas know.  Genesis One is a sign of one of the most ancient civilizations on Earth.

Figure 14

Looking at Andrew Ter Ern Loke’s Book (2022) ” The Origin of Humanity and Evolution”   (Part 6 of 22)

0052 Why would God confound humanity?

Genesis One is a sign of the evolutionary record.

Genesis One can only be viewed as a sign of the evolutionary record in light of Peirce’s typology of natural signs.

Genesis One is also a sign of the oldest civilization of the ancient Near East.

0053 During most of the Bible’s theodrama, no one apparently knows this.

The stories of the Old Testament are remembered and retold by itinerate bards, as well as by temple priests.  The prophetic stories are collected, redacted, written, promulgated, misinterpreted and then fulfilled in the death and resurrection of one of those itinerate preachers, who started out as a carpenter.

The Bible, the union of the Old and New Testaments, promises the salvation of all who are baptized in the water of the Holy Spirit.  Jesus, that miraculous former carpenter, serves as the New Adam.

During this entire time, the so-called “literature of the ancient Near East” is the Father’s secret.  Yes, everyone knows that the Near East is ancient.  But, no one remembers that these ancient civilizations have voices of their own.  No one knows about the cuneiform tablets buried in those dusty tells. The West recovers fragments.  Revealing fragments.

0054 Why does God empower a secularizing West, still animated by Christian curiosity, to recover some of this long-buried literature?  

Why does God reveal this secret in the middle of the modern Age of Ideas?

May I call the revelation, “a divine accommodation”?

0055 The title of chapter two of Loke’s book is “Divine Accommodation and Its Implications for Biblical Anthropology”.

0056 What is the concept of divine accommodation?

The scriptures work according to a human mode of understanding, following appearances in the common manner, and taking into account the human point of view during particular historical moments.  Divine accommodation is relevant even when the historical moment passes and fades from memory.  After all, what does our modern Age of Ideas have in common with the ancient Near East?

The theologian and biologist Denis Lamoureux responds to the challenge of divine accommodation by separating the messages of the Old Testament from the presences of premodern prescientific ancient Near Eastern conceptual frameworks.  For example, ancient Near Easterners regarded the heavens and the earth as surfaces.  Here is the inspiration for the medieval alchemist’s vision of a mundane and a celestial earth.  What happens above, happens below.  One system dwells between two surfaces.

0057 The god of the storm rules between the mundane and the celestial earths.  What better way to portray the tempestuous nature of human affairs, in our current Lebenswelt, against the eternal rhythms of earth and sky?

0058 But, can we, mere mortals, extract message from presence without distorting meaning?

Lamoureux’s project poses a paradox.  It holds the message of the Book of Genesis in high regard.  It aims to disregard the… um… presence of the world in which the book is told.  The messengers of Genesis live in the cultural world of the ancient Near East.  The dramas of the Old Testament take place on the stage of a grand theater that we, moderns, now realize has a life of its own.  Yes, the life of the ancient Near East permeates a document that comes from God and thus, cannot error.

0059 Perhaps, there is another way to understand…

What if even the apparent errors manifest divine intent?

After all, most of the apparent scientific errors reflect the premodern cognitive frameworks of the ancient Near East.

0060 What if the truthfulness of scripture is not restricted to literal words on physical pages.  It makes me wonder.  What is “truth”?  Where did I hear that question before?  Is truth the opposite of false?  Or, is true the opposite of deception?  Is truth correct and honest?  If so, then how can truth survive even one civilizational turning?  A civilizational turning?  Yes, a civilizational turning occurs when a civilization realizes that everything it knows is wrong.

The book of Genesis tells of many civilizational turnings.  The stories of Adam and Eve correspond to one.  Perhaps, the stories of Cain and Abel correspond to another.  The civilizational turning between Cain and Lamech is as clear as day.  Lamech turns God’s protection of Cain completely around.  Biblical turnings occur within the civilizational turnings of larger Near Eastern societies.  The Genesis genealogies are lists that keep track of names, despite civilizational changes. No doubt, on the celestial earth, a story attends each name.

0061 If the history of the USA is any indicator, a civilizational turning occurs every orbit of the protoplanet Pluto, around 248 years.  The American revolution starts in 1776 AD.  America grows into a nation, then an empire, and then the empire collapses in 2024.  The stories of Adam and Eve, Cain and Abel, and Lamech may correspond to three Plutonic orbits.

Three fairy tales for three Plutonic orbits.

0062 One can say that the fact that the Bible is written in the literary genres of the ancient Near East is divine accommodation.

One can also say that Biblical inerrancy proclaims that the apparently erroneous “sciences” of the ancient Near East are part of the revelation.  The presence of the ancient Near East cannot be separated from the message of divine revelation.

0063 This implies that there is a hylomorphic aspect to Biblical revelation.

What is a hylomorphe?

A hylomorphism consists of two contiguous real elements.  Aristotle’s hylomorphe has two real elements, matter and form.  For nomenclature, I place the contiguity in brackets.  I suspect that a familiar term fits as a label for the contiguity,producing the hylomorphe, matter [substance] form.

0064 Similarly, Biblical inerrancy and divine accommodation are two real elements.  These two elements stamp a common metal.

Figure 15

Looking at Andrew Ter Ern Loke’s Book (2022) ” The Origin of Humanity and Evolution”   (Part 7 of 22)

0065 The normal context of modern Christian Faith3 brings the common metal of Biblical inerrancy and divine accommodation2 into relation with the possibility of Biblical and historical interpretation in the modern and postmodern age1.

Figure 16

0066 How can this be?

The recovery of cuneiform texts from ancient Near Eastern civilizations during the modern era gives me information that not even Moses was aware of.  The stories of Adam and Eve trace back to the earliest stages of Mesopotamian civilization.  The Creation Story is a sign of the evolutionary record and a sign of the ancient Near East.

0067 What is so important about the first civilization on Earth?

Remember the analogy of the great river running north from eastern Africa through Egypt, to the Mediterranean Sea? The southern and elevated part is De Nile.  Then, there is the imaginary falls (which is really a series of boat-crushing rapids).  Then, there is DeNial, running to the Sea and the start of history.  The Lebenswelt that we evolved in corresponds to De Nile.  Our current Lebenswelt corresponds to DeNial.  We, in our current Lebenswelt, are so estranged from the Lebenswelt that we evolved in, that all written origin stories of the ancient Near East (except for the anomalous Genesis One) depict a recent origin of humans.

0066 In some of the written origin stories of the ancient Near East, humans spring from seeds in irrigated fields.

On other stories, humans are fashioned from the blood of a defeated deity.

All are in accord in this one regard.  Humans are recent things.

0068 Witness the stories of Adam and Eve.  The manufacture of each person is quite specific.  They are fashioned during the Wet Neolithic of southwestern Asia (and northern Africa) at the confluence of four rivers, two of which are the Tigris and Euphrates.  The scene is depicted in Razie Mah’s masterwork, An Archeology of the Fall, as an island that rises out of river mud.  There, a garden grows.

The apparent error that four rivers flow out of Eden is not an error at all.  It is merely an appearance that locates the witness on the island.  On top of that, the other apparent errors of the making of Adam and Eve point to the genre of fairy tales.  Many aspects of the stories of Adam and Eve point to the location and timing of the Ubaid of southern Mesopotamia.  Many aspects point to the genre of fairy tale.

0069 When the modern inquirer stands at the bottom of the rapids separating DeNile from DeNial, which are really the same river, running from east-African highlands to Mediterranean-delta lowlands, we may correctly and honestly describe these the rapids as a giant waterfall, hundreds of feet tall.  No boat can pass from DeNial to De Nile, not even one carrying the (allegedly) feather-light soul of the Pharaoh.  Similarly, we, in our current Lebenswelt, cannot navigate back to the Lebenswelt that we evolved in.

The disjuncture is so great that scientists, fixed on accounting for the metaphorical lands around De Nile, cannot imagine the waterfall.  Instead, they see a series of rapids, which they label, The Neolithic Agricultural Revolution, or The Copper Age, or Trends towards Urbanization, or A Transition from Down-The-Line Trading to Organized Long-Distance Trade

0070 Of course, what scientist would model a series of non-navigable rapids with the conceptual apparatus of a huge impassible waterfall?

Oh, that is precisely what the writers of the ancient Near East do.

They cannot see the highlands above the rapids.  So, the Lebenswelt that we evolved in never comes to view.  The waterfall is so tall that it reaches from the earth to the heavens.  Or is it, from the heavens to earth?

0071 So, versus 26 and 27 of sura 15 of the Qu’ran says that humans are molded from dry clay.  And the jinn?  They are created from the scorching fire.  Perhaps, the jinn are associated to the same roaring fires that burned ancient royal cities and kilned cuneiform clay tablets into brick.

0072 Why do scientists not imagine the waterfall that is witnessed by every recovered origin story of the ancient Near East (with one exception)?

The scientific story of human evolution, dutifully recounted by Loke in section 5.1, is radically incomplete, because it cannot account for the testimony of all the written origin stories of the ancient Near East.  At the start of our current Lebenswelt, humanity is born again.

0073 Loke does not know about The First Singularity and Its Fairy Tale Trace, by Razie Mah, available at smashwords and other e-book venues.  Loke has not heard about An Archaeology of the Fall.

Loke is not alone.  There is a scientific hypothesis that agrees with all those written origin stories of the ancient Near East.  Human evolution comes with a twist.  The Ubaid of southern Mesopotamia is the first culture on Earth to practice speech-alone talk.  At the time, all other contemporaneous Epipaleolithic and Neolithic cultures practice hand-speech talk.  Today, all civilizations employ speech-alone talk.


Looking at Andrew Ter Ern Loke’s Book (2022) ” The Origin of Humanity and Evolution”   (Part 8 of 22)

0074 The scientific hypothesis of the first singularity allows the Christian theologian to see the actuality inherent in the coincidence of Biblical inerrancy and divine accommodation.

0075 If the Bible is inerrant, then the fairy tales of Adam and Eve are not in error.  There may be no talking snake, as envisioned.  But, there is a historical Adam and Eve, deep in the founding of the Ubaid of southern Mesopotamia, who practice speech-alone talk and who make a tragic decision.

Who remembers this decision?

The women of the family of Seth, the women of the family of Noah, and the woman of the family of Terah fashion a fairy tale.  Generation after generation, mothers tell their children this fairy tale, with utmost fidelity.  Why such fidelity?  They know that this story goes back as far as anyone can remember.

0076 If the Bible accommodates for the ways of humans, the genre of fairy tale fits the concept.  In our current Lebenswelt, we are exiles from the Lebenswelt that we evolved in. The story of Adam and Eve accommodates to those who tell origin stories.

Perhaps, it is fitting that the women of Israel bear this tradition.  The stories of Adam and Eve are not explicitly recounted in the later books of Moses, which stand in the purview of priests and similarly appointed men.  These fairy tales are only included in the writing of the Old Testament by an alleged “redactor”, perhaps because the bards of Israel start their traditional recitations with their mothers’ fairy tale.  The stories of Adam and Eve shift attention, from the grandeur of the Creation Story, back to the mundane lives of those who God has chosen.

These stories are like water landing from a waterfall as high as the eye can see.

0077 At this point, I am able to formulate the vision that Loke strives to achieve.

The stories of Adam and Eve clearly are fairy tales.  They are precisely the type of stories a mother tells her children.  And yet, they come from the Bible, which has no errors, because it is the word of God.  Well, the Bible is the words of God.  The Word of God is Jesus, the Christ, the fulfillment of all that goes before.  Jesus is the penultimate in divine accommodation, as well as the penultimate in Biblical inerrancy.

For today’s Christian, confronted with the intransigence of science and confounded with the falsities and the deceptions of modernity, the stories of Adam and Eve do not sound like anything a scientist would describe.  For that, Christians are ridiculed by the very people who claim that the Bible is simply another tale from the ancient Near East.

Yet, in that observation, there is an opportunity.  According to Loke, the Pentateuch must be interpreted as events, occurring on a small stage, within a larger stage, the theater of the ancient Near East.  Once this type of concordism becomes routine, then the wonders of the coincidence of Biblical inerrancy and divine accommodation may play out and expand the extent of God’s revelation to include that larger stage.

0078 The only requirement is for the stories of Adam and Eve to somehow connect to the start of the grand stage, the start of civilization in the Near East, as well as throughout the world.

That requirement is satisfied in the scientific hypothesis of the first singularity, which proposes that speech-alone talkenters a world filled with hand-speech talk with the Ubaid of southern Mesopotamia.

The stories of Adam and Eve associate to the start of the Ubaid, as well as the earliest adoption of speech-alone talk, as well as the initiation of our current Lebenswelt.

0079 Here is a picture of Loke’s vision.

Figure 17

0080 As soon as this dyad in the realm of actuality is formulated, Loke’s vision unfolds.

Yet, Loke knows nothing about the first singularity.

This is a rare moment in history.  No one knows that great questions have been addressed by a novel scientific hypothesis.  Why civilization?  Why are the timeframes of the Lebenswelt that we evolved in so different than timeframes in our current Lebenswelt?  How are we tied to the origin of our current Lebenswelt?

Loke knows nothing.  And yet, because he has read and contemplated the scriptures, he knows everything.


Looking at Andrew Ter Ern Loke’s Book (2022) ” The Origin of Humanity and Evolution”   (Part 9 of 22)

0081 Now is a good time to note how current literature, such as Loke’s book, may be re-articulated and re-interpreted in light of three new hypotheses on human evolution, contained in Razie Mah’s masterworks, (1) The Human Niche, (2) An Archaeology of the Fall, and (3) How To Define the Word “Religion”.  The hypotheses that (1) the human niche is the potential of triadic relations, that (2) our current Lebenswelt is not the same as the Lebenswelt that we evolved in, and that (3) spoken words are defined by their potentials, in addition to the fact that they occupy positions in two arbitrarily related systems of differences, change the face of scientific inquiry into humankind.

0082 With these three hypotheses, the Christian can now picture the Pentateuch as revelation, as well as a testimonial available to scientific inquiry.  We also have testimony from royal archives throughout the ancient Near East, in the form of recovered and translated cuneiform tablets.  Thus, God’s revelation enlivens ancient testimony about the current human condition, bringing that testimony to life.

0083 Are revelation and ancient testimony two faces of one coin?

I return to Loke’s third chapter, discussing the time spans of creation.

0084 There are two concerns for the modern Christian.

One pertains to the time scales reported in the Genesis text.

The second pertains to the time scales of the evolutionary record.

The first is revelation.  The second is scientific testimony.

0085 If the revelation is a vision, then the scientific testimony includes all of evolutionary history, from the start of our solar system to the start of our current Lebenswelt.  The two coincide when one reads the Biblical text through the lens of Peirce’s typology of natural signs.  In this, the revelation itself testifies to the fact that one of humanity’s crucial adaptations involves sign-processing

0086 Here is a picture of the nested form corresponding to Loke’s integrating approach.

Figure 18

0087 God’s revelation extends to the times above the waterfall, which stand beyond the direct remembrance of those who live in the times below the waterfall.


Looking at Andrew Ter Ern Loke’s Book (2022) ” The Origin of Humanity and Evolution”   (Part 10 of 22)

0088 There are two creation stores in Genesis.

Genesis One portrays the creation of the tent (or temple) of the heavens and the earth.  At the same time, using Peirce’s typology of signs, the six days of creation are signs of corresponding evolutionary epochs.

Genesis 2.4 introduces the stories of Adam and Eve.  These stories are fairy tales, concerning two figures living near the start of the Ubaid.  Adam and Eve are the parents, not of all humanity, but the lineage of Seth.  Noah is born in the lineage of Seth.  Abraham is born into the lineage of Noah.  Moses is born in the lineage of Abraham.  David is anointed king over the people who followed Moses.  Jesus is born into the lineage of David.

0089 Remember the Greimas square?

Here is the Greimas square for the map of the Nile, imaginatively relabeled with a pencil.

Figure 19

0090 The waterfall is an imaginary construct, marking the location of a series of unnavigable rapids.   It is the focal term (A).

The Ubaid of southern Mesopotamia is clearly manifest in the archaeological record by 5800BC.  That is 7800 years ago.  I denote this year as 0 Ubaid Zero Prime, that is, 0 U0′ (spoken, “Zero Uh-Oh Prime”).

Uh-oh Prime?

0091 Imagine going over a waterfall so tall that, by the time of landing, you do not remember that you went over some sort of edge, long long ago.

Yes, that sounds like 0 U0′.

0092 Perhaps, I can picture a series of rapids, where each rapid is so turbulent that one hardly remembers the previous one.  Or maybe, one remembers only half of the previous turbulence.  After four rapids, each lasting around two-hundred and forty-eight years, one remembers only one-sixteenth of the first rapid.  After another seven-hundred and fifty years, one remembers less that one percent of the original rapid.  Perhaps, people only remember the first rapid as some sort of fairy tale.

0093 The Ubaid nominally starts at 0 U0′.

The next archaeological period, the Uruk, begins around 1800 U0′.

That corresponds to seven Plutonic years.

In each Plutonic year, civilization emerges, grows, matures, becomes feeble, and descends into the underworld.

Recall, only a single Plutonic year describes the rise, growth, maturity, corruption and self-destruction of the United States of America, from 1776 to 2024.

Imagine such change seven times over.

Who could remember?

0094 The lowlands of DeNial (B) contrast with these rapids.  The lowlands hit their stride in the Uruk.

The Uruk expands, in an organized fashion, into territories occupied by other Neolithic cultures.  Uruk invents the pottery wheel, then the cart wheel.  Uruk domesticates the donkey.  Uruk invents writing.  Uruk conducts long-distance trade, which is very different from traditional down-the-line exchange.  Uruk builds towns.  Uruk sends emissaries to distant lands.  Uruk demands corvee labor and compensates with rations using standardized bowls.

Neighboring hand-speech talking cultures do what every culture does when exposed to a budding civilization with wealth and power.  They mimic their neighbor.  They drop the hand-talk component of their hand-speech talk.  They adopt speech-alone talk.  Then, they too, begin to forget the time-less world of hand-speech talk.  Why?  Speech-alone talk and hand-speech talk have radically different semiotic properties.

0095 Speech-alone talk is purely symbolic.  Spoken words can label anything.  On the map, I write the name of the river, running through Egypt, on its way to the Mediterranean, where history begins.  I write the name, “DeNial”.  Sure, it is a joke, of some sort.  At the same time, the label shows that any spoken word can be placed anywhere, even on a map of a river, when the official name is different.  Yes, we pretend that our spoken words are full of meaning, presence and message, when they really only placeholders in two arbitrarily related systems of differences, parole and langue.  Spoken words fill empty slots in a network of empty slots.

Isn’t that what the structuralists have been telling the modern West for the past century?

0096 The uplands of De Nile (C) speak against the lowlands of DeNial (B).

Hand-speech talk pictures and points to its referents.  So, the referent exists and the gestural-word pictures or points to the referent.  Symbolic operations enter the picture only because one manual-brachial word gesture must be sufficiently distinct as to not be confused with other manual-brachial word gestures.  Symbols have that character.  Each symbol is distinct.  Distinctiveness allows speed in communication.  Manual-brachial word gestures, even though grounded in the sign-qualities of icons and indexes, are sufficiently symbolic as to support symbolic operations, otherwise known as grammar.  

Hand-speech talk is fully linguistic.  Hand-speech talk is grounded in the natural sign-qualities of icons and indexes. Hand talk has trained us to expect that our words refer to real things, not abstractions or made-up realities.  We innately expect our words to refer to things and states of things.

0097 The river of time (D) contrasts with the uplands of De Nile (C), because it includes that short river running through the lowlands (B), just beyond the falls (A).  As far as human evolution goes, De Nile (C) runs for millions of years while the entire river (D) runs only 7800 years longer.  All written history occurs within that short period of 7800 years.  Everyone who we know, as historical figures, live in our current Lebenswelt (B).

0098 Here is a picture of the Greimas square for the waterfall, in terms of Earth years.

Figure 20