Thoughts on Man and Sin by Piet Schoonenberg (1964) 1.3A

Summary of text [comment] pages 16 & 17

Section 3 of Chapter 1 is titled “Sin Proceeds from Our Freedom”.

Sin is a voluntary transgression [that is, it involves conscience].

But this is not evident in the Old Testament, where the focus is on religion, rather than psychology.

Here, “freedom” is a sociological concept, rather a psychological one.

Often, transgressions committed out of ignorance draw punishment.  For example, Uzzah died immediately after accidently touching the Holy Ark (2 Sam 6:6).

With the prophets, the tenor is more personal.  God looks on the heart (Isa 23:13).  “Circumcision of the heart” became a metaphor of “a true heart” [consciencefree].  A hardened heart became a metaphor for a sinful heart [consciencelacking].