Enter Martin Luther (d 1545).
Recall, the Scholastic picture of the Fall after Jesus was:
Saved Humanity(acts of obedience and justice(human faculties “of nature”)
And the Fall before Jesus was:
Fallen Humanity(a. o. disobedience and injustice(human faculties “of nature”)
It appears to me that Martin Luther changed the formula by replacing “acts of disobedience and injustice” with “acts of unbelief”.
The existential evidence of unbelief in the early 1500s must have been palpable. For example, if it were not for the Reformation, the standardization of selling indulgences plus advantages of the newly invented printing press could have produced the world’s first fiat currency.
How much is that apple? Five days off in purgatory. What, last week it was three.
Luther’s case would have been irrefutable if the currency were in indulgences, complete with phrases like “In God We Trust”. Savor the irony of that.