Thoughts on Whatever Became of Sin? By Karl Menninger MD (1973) 6C

In Chapter 6, Menninger showed how some “sins” were replaced by “symptoms” as “signs of coping with dis-ease”, where the “dis-ease” derived from the two drives of “seeing pleasure and avoiding pain”.

In the frame of the nested form, however, “symptoms” do not replace “sins”.  Instead, “symptoms make sins possible”.

Thus, Menninger’s argument can be encapsulated in the nested form of crime(sin(symptom)).

“Crime” puts “the actuality that is sin” into context.

“Symptoms” make “the actuality of sin” possible.

“The actualities of sin” make “crime” appear real.

“The actualities of sin” situate various “symptoms”.

In Menninger’s perspective, even though “sin” has been eclipsed by “crime” and “symptoms”, the term remains important.  Even if you excluded “sins that had been declared crimes” and “sins that could be explained as symptoms”, a lot of territory remained.

From the nested point of view, all the territory remains.