Man and Sin by Piet Schoonenberg (1964) 2.3 YE

[Base-level bias must exist in social science experiments because the researcher defines the thought experiment3a that stimulates a response in the subject1a.

The response (the upwelling of potential in the subject1a plus the potential of the survey to impose constraints1b) always conforms to the stimulus (the normal contexts3a&3b that the event occurs in).

This also explains why many social scientists rely on deception. Deception has the same character as bias.   All experiments exhibit ‘base-level deception.]